There are plenty of fitness related terms that you often come across while researching different aspects of health and fitness to further your knowledge. These are just a handful off the top of my head that may come up and that some people may not be familiar with.
1.Static stretching– stretching muscle to point of tension and holding for 10-30 seconds. Think static, no motion.
2.Dynamic stretching– stretching muscles with quick but controlled movements (example: high knees). Think dynamic, motion.
3.Eccentric– the phase of an exercise in which the agonist muscle (primary muscle being worked) lengthens. The lowering phase of the bicep curl in which your biceps brachii muscle lengthens.
4.Concentric– the phase of an exercise in which the agonist muscle shortens. The “curl” in the bicep curl in which your biceps brachii muscle shortens.
5.Isometric– static contraction of muscle in which the force being produced cannot overcome workload (think trying to do a pull up and hanging there with muscles contracting).
6.Compound exercise– Also called a multi-joint exercise, is an exercise that involves 2 or more joints (hence the term, multi-joint exercise). Squat, Bench press, row. You can set up a very effective and efficient workout with just the squat, bench, military press and row.
7.Single joint exercises– an exercise that only involves one joint such as a barbell curl, leg curl, or lateral raise.
8.Superset– moving from one exercise that works one muscle or muscle group to another exercise working a separate muscle/muscle group with little to no rest. Bench Press straight to Barbell Row.
9.Energy balance– energy in is equal to energy out. At an energy balance you would maintain body weight.
10.Negative energy balance– energy in is less than energy expended. This is what you want to achieve when your goal is fat loss. You need to take in less calories than you expend on a daily basis (though with a calorie cycling type diet you would be focusing on overall calories over a week). Energy Expenditure>Energy Intake
11.RMR- Resting metabolic rate. The amount of energy your body would use and/or needs to sustain itself even if you remained in bed doing nothing all day. You never want to eat below this number, it is extremely unhealthy to do so. This accounts for roughly 60% of total TDEE.
12.EAT- Exercise activity thermogenesis. Pretty straight-forward, the amount of energy expended during exercise. This can account for roughly 15-30% of TDEE depending on activity level. However, it can account for nothing in a sedentary individual. Exercising also, specifically resistance training, increases muscle mass, which in turn, increases RMR.
13.NEAT– Non-exercise activity thermogenesis. Things like tapping your foot, fidgeting with your hands, walking to the bathroom. This accounts for roughly 10% of your TDEE.
14.TEF– The thermic effect of food. Or the energy expended/used to digest, absorb, and utilize ingested food. Protein has a thermic effect of 25-30%. Carbohydrate, 6-8%. Fat, 2-3%. Example: You eat 100 calories of protein, 25-30 are used just to digest the food. In regards to TDEE (mentioned below) TEF usually accounts for 10%.
15.TDEE– Total Daily Energy Expenditure. This is the sum of RMR, TEF, EAT, NEAT. Basically the total amount of calories you expend in a day. Generally speaking, to lose weight you would subtract 500 from this number to create a negative energy balance. To maintain current weight you’d eat at this number and to gain weight you would add 250-500 calories.
16.LBM (Lean body mass)– everything outside of fat mass such as muscle, water, bone, etc. You would get this from subtracting your body fat from your total weight. If I weigh 160 lbs at 15% body fat, my lean body mass would be 136 lbs (160×.15=24, 160-24=136 LBM).
17.HIIT– High-intensity interval training. Performing bouts of high intensity exercise followed by short rest periods and repeated multiple times. Examples:Sprinting for 40 yards, walking back then repeating. Cycling for 30 seconds at high intensity, low intensity for 30 seconds then repeating.